Georgia Archives

University System of Georgia

Educational Resources

Georgia Archives Digital Records used with Georgia Standards of Excellence

Teachers and students can view documents from the Georgia Archives’ digital collections which can be used with the Georgia Studies Standards of Excellence, Eighth Grade, Historical Understandings. Other examples may be found by using the Virtual Vault. The Georgia Archives houses collections which support the Georgia Studies Standards of Excellence which are not digitized but may be viewed by visiting the Archives.

SS8H2 Analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history

  1. Evaluate the role of diverse groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents) in settling Georgia during the Trustee Period.
  2. Explain the transition of Georgia into a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, alcohol, and government.
  3. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced and traded in colonial Georgia.

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • Royal period (colony)
  • Savannah
  • Trustee(s)
  • Trustee period
  • Charter of 1732
  • Defense
  • Economics
  • Indigo
  • Highland Scots
  • Mary Musgrove
  • Tomochichi
  • Oglethorpe, James
  • Buffer colony
  • Malcontents
  • Salzburgers
  • Silk

SSH82 Standard Areas Collections

(Area A) 1732 (copy recorded 1735) Royal Charter of the Colony of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00774

Significance: This copy was recorded February 22, 1735, by the Secretary of the Province of South Carolina from a copy carried to Georgia by James Oglethorpe.

(Area A) Original Grantees of the Colony of Georgia under the Trustees, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00020

Significance: Bound in Colonial and Headright Grant Book A, 1755-1758. Grantees listed by ward and lot on pages 10-13.

(Defense) 1740. Military Strategies to defeat the Spanish, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00641

Significance: This document suggests strategies General James Oglethorpe and the British colonial troops could use to defeat the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, 1739-1742, which was largely fought on the Georgia-Florida border.

(Defense) 1742. Account of the Battle of Bloody Marsh, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00634

Significance: This document recounts the Battle of Bloody March July 1742, in which British colonial troops under General James Oglethorpe defeated an attempted invasion by Spanish troops from Florida.

(Area B) 1773. Motion to prepare Address of Thanks to Georgia colonial Governor James Wright for securing cession of lands from Creek and Cherokee Indians, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00103

Significance: Under the Royal Charter, acquisition of land from Native Americans.

(Area B) 1749. Proceedings Related to Mary Musgrove of the President and Assistants Assembled for the Colony of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00406

Significance: Mary Musgrove was the daughter of an English trader father and Creek Indian mother who served as an interpreter for James Oglethorpe. In 1742 she married her third husband the Rev. Thomas Bosomworth, who had been sent to the Colony of Georgia as a missionary. These excerpts from the “Proceedings of the President and Assistants Assembled for the Colony of Georgia” relate to Mrs. Bosomworth’s attempts from July 1749 through April 1751 to establish her claims to land near Savannah and three of the Sea Islands granted to her by the Creek chiefs Tomochichi and Malatchi, which British officials refused to recognize.

(Area D) 1755. Entry of Claims, Colony of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00007

Significance: Colonists holding land granted by the Trustees had to submit their grants and receive new crown grants after Georgia became a royal colony in 1754.

(Area D) 1754. First Council Meeting of Governor John Reynolds, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00142

Significance: Record of the First Council Meeting of Governor John Reynolds at which the Governor presented his commission from King George II.

(Area D) 1754-1759. Journal of the Governor and Council, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00141

Significance: Record of Georgia’s first royal governor.

(Area D) 1754, First Council Meeting of Governor John Reynolds, Ad Hoc Collection, 00142
John Reynolds was Georgia’s first Royal Governor.

(Area D) 1754-01784, Proclamations issued by the governors of the Colony, and later the State, of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, vo1-3095

The proclamations recorded pertain to the General Assembly; general elections; collection of taxes; courts of justice; enforcement of quarantines; establishment of new counties; apprehension of criminals; Indian affairs; military affairs; runaway slaves; surveying and distribution of ceded lands; trade and shipping. The last royal proclamation by Governor Sir James Wright is on page 207; the first proclamation by the Archibald Bulloch, President of the Assembly and Commander in Chief, is on page 208.

(Area E) 1741. Transactions of the Trustees of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00422

Significance: This volume, the third of the series and second extant volume, is organized into separate journals for each year from June 1741 through May 1744.

(Area E) Livestock brands, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00766

Livestock owners had to register the brands with which they marked their livestock with the Secretary of the Royal Colony of Georgia.

(Area E) 1761. John Palmer Estate Papers, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00013

Significance: An example of goods used in colony.

SS8H3 Analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolutionary Era.

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • Articles of Confederation
  • Baldwin, Abraham
  • Battle of Kettle Creek
  • Broadside
  • Constitution
  • Constitutional Convention
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Few, William
  • French and Indian War
  • Great Compromise
  • Grievances
  • Gwinnett, Button
  • Hall, Lyman
  • Loyalist
  • Patriot
  • Preamble
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • Siege of Savannah
  • George Walton
  1. Explain the causes of the American Revolution as they impacted Georgia; include the French and Indian War, Proclamation of 1763, and the Stamp Act.
  2. Interpret the three parts of the Declaration of Independence (preamble, grievances, and Declaration) and identify the three Georgia signers of the document.
  3. Analyze the significance of the Loyalists and Patriots as a part of Georgia’s role in the Revolutionary War; include the Battle of Kettle Creek and Siege of Savannah.
  4. Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and explain how those weaknesses led to the writing of a new federal Constitution.

(Area A) 1754-01784, Proclamations issued by the governors of the Colony, and later the State, of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, vo1-3095

The proclamations recorded pertain to the General Assembly; general elections; collection of taxes; courts of justice; enforcement of quarantines; establishment of new counties; apprehension of criminals; Indian affairs; military affairs; runaway slaves; surveying and distribution of ceded lands; trade and shipping. The last royal proclamation by Governor Sir James Wright is on page 207; the first proclamation by the Archibald Bulloch, President of the Assembly and Commander in Chief, is on page 208.
Note: Page 11 (1756) Seven Years War - 1756-1763

(Area B) 1776. Georgia’s Official Copy of the Declaration of Independence, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00881

Significance: On January 18, 1777, Congress, sitting in Baltimore, ordered that copies of the Declaration of Independence printed by Mary Katherine Goddard of Baltimore be sent to the states to be recorded in the states’ official records. On March 2, 1777, Georgia’s copy was recorded as an official record in a volume with appointments and bonds of military officers.

(Area C) 1782. Simpson, John, Memorandum Describing the Evacuation of Georgia Loyalists from Savannah, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00861

Significance: When British troops were ordered to evacuate Savannah in June 1782, many Georgia Loyalists also evacuated with their slaves to East Florida or Jamaica.

(Area D) 1787. Georgia Convention to Ratify the Federal Constitution Journal, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00400

Significance: The convention opened on December 25, 1787. On December 31, it was unanimously resolved to adopt the proposed Federal Constitution. On January 2, twenty-six delegates representing ten of eleven counties signed the act of ratification.

(Area D) 1788. Ratification of the United States Constitution, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00004

Significance: Resolution ratifying the United States Constitution from the Georgia Convention journal.

(Enrichment) 1776. Bulloch, Archibald, Appointment as President and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00882

Significance: After Royal Governor Sir James Wright left Georgia aboard a British warship in early March 1776, the 2nd Provincial Congress of Georgia convened and on April 15th adopted a temporary constitution now known as Rules and Regulations of the Colony of Georgia. Archibald Bulloch was appointed President and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Georgia on April 19th under this constitution. The appointment was not recorded until March 3, 1777, nine days after Bulloch’s sudden death and the day after the Declaration of Independence was recorded in Georgia’s official records.

(Enrichment/Term) 1777. Gwinnett, Button, Appointment as President and Commander-in-Chief of the State of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00883

Significance: Gwinnett was appointed President by a quorum of the Council of Safety on March 4, 1777 while the legislature was in recess, ten days after the death of President Archibald Bulloch. The appointment was recorded the same day, March 4th, two days after the Declaration of Independence, which Gwinnett signed as one of Georgia’s representatives, was recorded in Georgia’s official records. Gwinnett’s tenure as president was brief. The legislature convened under the new state constitution which went into effect on May 1st chose John Adam Treutlen as governor on May 8th. Gwinnett died on May 19th, three days after fighting a duel with Lachlan McIntosh.

(Enrichment) 1777. Constitution of the State of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah01093

Significance: The convention to write and adopt the state’s first constitution lasted from October 1776 to February 5, 1777, but was only in session about half of that time. The constitution differs from later constitutions in providing for a unicameral legislature elected by almost universal male white suffrage; compulsory voting; and a plural executive consisting of a governor and an elected executive council. The original manuscript copy is no longer extant. The copy published in Watkins Digest is the earliest copy held by the Archives.

(Area D/Enrichment) 1783. Treaty of Augusta, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00888

Significance: The Cherokees ceded their lands between the Savannah and Keowee rivers on the east and the Oconee River on the west, which Georgia wanted for Revolutionary War veterans. The treaty included provisions for surveying a boundary line. A portion of the Cherokee cession was claimed by the Creeks. The journal includes talks from Georgia commissioners sent to the Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indians, who did not attend. The State of Georgia assumed the right under the Articles of Confederation to negotiate with Indian tribes.

(Enrichment) Colonial and State Officers Appointments, 1754-1778, Ad Hoc Collection, vol2-12896, vol2-12898 (vol2-12896) (vol2-12898)

Significance: At some point this volume was rebound and divided into two volumes. The records in 12896 date from 1754, when the Trustees turned the colonial government over to the crown and Georgia became a royal colony with the administration of Governor John Reynolds, to November 1778 and the administration of Governor Sir James Wright. Includes a running name index at the end of this record, which covers both volumes. The records at the beginning of the volume 12898 date from 1789, Governor George Walton. Records on page 247 (in pencil) revert to 1777 through page 277. This section includes Georgia’s copy of the Declaration of Independence. Page278 returns to 1789 and continues through Governor George Gilmer in 1827. Pages 248 through 256 are missing.

SS8H4 Explain significant factors that affected westward expansion in Georgia between 1789 and 1840.

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • Cherokee Indians
  • Creek Indians
  • Dahlonega Gold Rush
  • Headright System
  • Land Lottery
  • MacIntosh, William
  • Marshall, John
  • Railroad
  • Ross, John
  • Trail of Tears
  • University of Georgia
  • Worcester v. Georgia
  • Yazoo Land Fraud
  1. Explain reasons for the establishment of the University of Georgia, and for the westward movement of Georgia’s capitals.
  2. Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo Land Fraud.
  3. Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia’s growth.
  4. Describe the role of William McIntosh in the removal of the Creek from Georgia.
  5. Analyze how key people (John Ross, John Marshall, and Andrew Jackson) and events (Dahlonega Gold Rush and Worcester v. Georgia) led to the removal of the Cherokees from Georgia known as the Trail of Tears.

(Area A) 1808. Plan of Milledgeville, The Capital and permanent seat of the Government of the State of Georgia. Historic Map File, hmf0251

Significance: “Copied from the original plan on the 2nd day of September 1808, by Daniel Sturges, Surgeon General. This plan of Milledgeville was approved by the commissioners on the 6th day of September 1808.”

(Area A) File II Collection, Indian Treaties

Significance: Treaties from 1778 to 1795.

(Area A) Indian Depredation Claims, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00685

Significance: Reimbursement for property losses of white settlers due to Indian depredations were provided for in the 1821 Treaty of Indian Springs with the Creek Indians.

(Area A) Land Lotteries, Research, Georgia Archives website

Significance: Explaining the eight land lotteries.

(Area A) 1784. Washington County College Land Grant, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00541

Significance: Pursuant to an Act of the Assembly, four tracts of 5,000 acres each in Washington County were granted to a board of trustees to generate income for the use of the University of Georgia.

(Area A) 1784. Washington County College Plat, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00550

Significance: See Washington College Land Grant.

(Area A/Terms) 1785. University of Georgia Land Grant, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00556

Significance: The University of Georgia in Athens is on a tract of land that was originally surveyed for William Few. After several subsequent sales, John Milledge purchased 633 acres of the original tract in 1801 and donated it to the board of trustees as the site for the University of Georgia.

(Area A/Terms) 1785. University of Georgia Plat, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00555

Significance: See University of Georgia Land Grant.

(Area A) 1832. Letter from Cherokee Women Betsy Philips and Sally Hughes to Georgia Governor George Gilmer, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00874

Significance: Betsy Philips and Sally Hughes write to Governor Gilmer from Etowah, Cherokee Nation, to protest the operation of a ferry by Jesse Day and John Dosson on the Etowah River in competition with an established ferry operated by Cherokee Indians Walleneta, Charly Moore, and Sally Hughes.

(Area A) 1831. Letter from James Boykin and Grigsby E. Thomas, Columbus, Georgia, to Governor George R. Gilmer regarding Creek Indian removal, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00741

Significance: In 1831, Boykin, along with Grigsby E. Thomas, wrote the governor again, lamenting the desperate state of our “red brethren of the Creek nation” in Columbus, Georgia, and suggesting that the President of the United States could reduce the starvation and suffering and encourage emigration so “they may [again] become a happy people.”

(Area B) 1794. Yazoo Land Sales Committee Report, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00507

Significance: Report of the committee to the Georgia House of Representatives, recommending considering proposals from private companies for the sale of western lands.

(Area B) 1795. Yahoo land Receipt from the Georgia Company, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00527

Significance: Receipt for $200,000 from the Georgia Company, one of the companies to successfully bid on the Yazoo lands (not to be mistaken with the Georgia Union Company) for the balance of their purchase, according to the act appropriating a part of the “Unlocated Territory.” The Yazoo Land Act was destroyed along with nearly all related records in February 1796, but the act’s major features are incorporated in this receipt.

(Area B) 1798. Constitution of the State of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00776

Significance: The constitution of 1798 went into effect upon its approval on May 30, 1798 by the constitutional convention called to draft it. It included the substance of the 1796 act rescinding the sale of the Yazoo lands.

(Area E) 1830. Act to authorize Georgia Governor George R. Gilmer to take possession of Cherokee lands, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00773

Significance: The gold rush of 1829 in Cherokee territory in north Georgia prompted the General Assembly to take possession of all mines, by military force if necessary, and make illicit digging a crime.

(Area E) 1832. Land Lottery Tickets, Cherokee Gold Lottery, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00850

Significance: The only known examples of lottery tickets.

(Area E) 1796. Journal at the Conference at Coleraine. Ad Hoc Collection, ah00892

Significance: Journal of the Georgia Commissioners negotiation with the Creek Indians at Coleraine.

SS8H5 Analyze the impact of the Civil War on Georgia.

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • Andersonville
  • Atlanta Campaign
  • Battle of Chickamauga
  • Cotton Gin
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Dred Scot Case
  • Election of 1860
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Georgia Platform
  • Lincoln, Abraham
  • Nullification
  • Succession
  • Slavery
  • States’ Rights
  • Union Blockade
  1. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, the Dred Scott case, Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860, and the debate over secession in Georgia.
  2. Explain Georgia’s role in the Civil War; include the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, the Emancipation Proclamation, Chickamauga, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.

(Area A) Compromise of 1850, Georgia Platform, Journal of the State Convention of 1850, Ad Hoc Collection, 1850cc

Significance: Georgia gave a qualified endorsement to the Compromise so long as the North complied with the Fugitive Slave Act and ceased to attempt to ban the expansion of slavery into new territories and states.

(Area B) 1861. Georgia Ordinance of Session, Ad Hoc Collection, ah007794

Significance: Draft of Ordinance of Secession approved by the Georgia secession convention, January 29, 1861.

(Area B) 1861. Constitution of the State of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00747

Significance: In addition to passing the Ordinance of Secession, the Georgia secession convention framed a new state constitution. This constitution greatly expanded the bill of rights. It was the first constitution submitted to voters for ratification, and was approved in a special election in July 1861 and went into effect August 20, 1861.

(Area B) 1862-1863, Georgia Laws, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00410

Significance: laws regarding slavery in the index.

(Area A) 1864-1865. Georgia Laws, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00411

Significance: laws regarding slavering in the index.

(Area B)1864. General William T. Sherman to General James B. McPherson, Howard House, Atlanta, Ad Hoc Collection, dcarson13

Significance: Order from General William T. Sherman to General James B. McPherson directing General Dodge’s 16th Corps, U.S. Army, to destroy the railroad between Atlanta and Decatur, Georgia

(Area B) 1864. General William T. Sherman’s Order to Vacate Atlanta, Ad Hoc Collection, dcarson16

Significance: After Federal troops occupied Atlanta on September 1, 1864, all persons other than U.S. military personnel were ordered to leave the city, which was required for military purposes.

(Area B) Atlanta, Ga., ca. 1864. A view on the Atlanta and West Point Railroad looking towards the railroad depot, roundhouse and machine shops in Atlanta, Georgia, shortly before their destruction by Sherman’s troops during the Civil War, Vanishing Georgia Collection, ful1049-90

(Area B) Atlanta, Georgia, October, 1864. View of downtown Atlanta near the railroad yards after some of the destruction by Sherman’s troops during the Civil War. Vanishing Georgia Collection, ful1091-94

Significance: Ruins of Atlanta. An albumen print.

(Area B) Note states 1863 more likely 1865. Josh by Rebel Perry, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00136

Significance: An African American confederate soldier with rifle. On March 13, 1865 the Confederacy approved the use of black troops.

(Area B) 1862. Western and Union Atlantic script, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00019

Significance: The State of Georgia owned and operated the Western and Atlantic railroad.

(Atlanta Campaign) February 1862 to July 5, 1864. Oakland Book of Confederate Burials, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00879

Significance: The cemetery sexton apparently fled the city on July 5th, 1864, before the fiercest fighting around Atlanta, which culminated with Federal troops occupying the city on September 1st. The many burials between July 5th and September 1st are not recorded in this volume, and some of the soldiers listed in the volume were subsequently moved to new burial locations and the cemetery layout changed.

SS8H6 Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • 13th Amendment
  • 14th Amendment
  • 15th Amendment
  • Black Legislators
  • Congressional Reconstruction
  • Freedmen’s Bureau
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • Sharecropping
  • Tenant Farming
  1. Explain the roles of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments in Reconstruction.
  2. Explain the key features of the Lincoln, the Johnson, and the Congressional Reconstruction plans.
  3. Compare and contrast the goals and outcomes of the Freedmen’s Bureau and the Ku Klux Klan.
  4. Examine reasons for and effects of the removal of African American or Black legislators from the Georgia General Assembly during Reconstruction.
  5. Give examples of goods and services produced during the Reconstruction Era, including the use of sharecropping and tenant farming.

(Area A) Constitution of the State of Georgia, 1865, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00401

Significance: The constitutional convention called in October 1865 drafted a constitution abolishing slavery and repudiating the state’s Civil War debt.

(Area A) Resolution Ratifying the 15th Amendment, 1870, Ad Hoc Collection, ah01171

House Resolution No. 2 was read and adopted by both the House and Senate of the Georgia General Assembly on February 2, 1870. The Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment was required for Georgia to be readmitted to the Union after Federal troops reoccupied the state on December 22, 1869. The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified and became part of the United States Constitution on February 3, 1870.

(Area A) Reconstruction Registration Oath Book, Ad Hoc Collection, VOL2-2860

Significance: Georgians wishing to vote for delegates to the 1867 state constitutional convention were required to swear that they had not been disenfranchised for participating in the Civil War against the United States government before they could register to vote.

(Area C/Terms) Ku Klux Klan, Vanishing Georgia Collection, ful0075

Significance: Child poses in a Ku Klux Klan outfit, circa 1924.

(Area C/Terms) Ku Klux Klan, Vanishing Georgia Collection, bur141

Significance: Burke County, ca. 1962-1964. Members of the Ku Klux Klan attend a cross burning.

(Area C/Terms) Ku Klux Klan, Vanishing Georgia Collection, ful0055

Significance: Postcard circa 1900s. The back of the postcard reads: Lanier University being built by generous friends of All Faiths in Atlanta and the South. Beautiful Campus of 50 acres Co-Educational, open entire year. All kinds of Classical, Scientific, and Practical Courses. Literary, Music, Art, Domestic Science, Teacher Training, Commercial Courses, Law, Religion, Agriculture, Correspondence Courses. A packet attached to this file is an essay from The South Atlantic Quarterly, Autumn 1978, written by Thomas G. Dyer. The essay is titled “The Klan on Campus: C. Lewis Fowler and Lanier University” and details the professional life of Lanier University’s first president, Charles Lewis Fowler. The essay seeks to explain Fowler’s, and thereby the University’s involvement with the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

(Area C/Terms) File II Collection, Ku Klux Klan

Significance: Court of Enquiry, Interrogatories, 1871 the State vs. J. B. Garrison. Includes testimony on how the Ku Klux Klan murdered George Wright.

(Area C/Terms) Ku Klux Klan, Vanishing Georgia Collection, dek058-84

Significance: Stone Mountain, 1934, Members of the Ku Klux Klan at a night rally/cross burning.

(Area C/Terms) Ku Klux Klan, Vanishing Georgia Collection, low043

Significance: Valdosta. October 10, 1922. Members of the Valdosta Ku Klux Klan participate in an open-air ceremony at night (cross burning).

(Area C/Terms) Ku Klux Klan, Vanishing Georgia Collection, bur121

Significance: Waynesboro, circa 1961. The remains of a cross burned by the Ku Klux Klan.

(Area: Background) 1872. Presidential electors, Ad Hoc Collection, ah01066

Significance: The Democratic presidential candidate, Horace Greeley, died between the popular election and the meeting of presidential electors. Democratic electors were left to exercise their own judgment. Six Georgia electors voted for vice-presidential candidate Benjamin Brown, two voted for Georgian Charles Jones Jenkins, and three cast their votes for the deceased Greeley; their votes were thrown out. The Republican candidate, the incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant, won 55.6% of the popular vote and thus won the election.

(Area D) 1976. Sculpture on the Capitol grounds, Capitol Art Collection

Significance: “Expelled Because of Color” [sic] is dedicated to the memory of 33 black state legislators who were expelled from the Georgia House because of their color in 1868, John Riddle, Jr., Sculptor.

SS8H7 Evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia during the New South Era.

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • Bourbon Triumvirate
  • Disenfranchisement
  • Dubois, W. E. B.
  • Grady, Henry
  • Herndon, Alonzo
  • International Cotton Expositions
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • Leo Frank Case
  • New South
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1892)
  • Populist Party
  • Washington, Booker T.
  • Watson, Tom
  1. Identify the ways individuals, groups, and events attempted to shape the New South; include the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Expositions, and Tom Watson and the Populists.
  2. Analyze how rights were denied to African Americans or Blacks through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence, including the 1906 Atlanta Riot.
  3. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, and Alonzo Herndon in advancement of the rights of African Americans or Blacks in the New South Era.
  4. Examine antisemitism and the resistance to racial equality exemplified in the Leo Frank case.

(Area B) 1906. Georgia National Guard correspondence regarding the Atlanta Race Riot, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00877

Significance. Georgia National Guard correspondence with Macon units regarding the Atlanta Riot of 1906. Governor Joseph M. Terrell requested reinforcements for Atlanta National Guard units from Marietta, Cedartown, Rome, Lindale, Griffin, and Macon.

(Area B) 1906. Georgia National Guard orders and report regarding the Atlanta Race Riot, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00876

Significance: Orders and reports regarding deployment of Georgia National Guard units in Atlanta on September 21, 1906 to protect African-American prisoners from a lynch mob after the assault of a white woman in Oakland City, the first of several alleged assaults of white women leading to the Atlanta race riot of September 22-25, 1906.

(Area B) 1906. Georgia National Guard Report Regarding Lynching near Sale City, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00878

Significance: A National Guard company from Moultrie was detailed to take into protective custody an African-American prisoner accused of killing a white man, J.A. Ackridge, only to find upon arriving that the prisoner had already been lynched.

(Area D) 1914, Leo Frank vs. the State of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00904

After the denial of his first appeal to the Georgia Supreme Court in the fall of 1913, Leo Frank filed an extraordinary motion for a new trial based in part on new evidence in the court’s October 1914 term. The court unanimously denied his appeal on October 14, 1914.

(Area D) 1915, Leo Frank Case. Governor John Marshall Slaton hung in effigy as King of the Jews. Vanishing Georgia Collection, gwn150

Significance: The day before he left office, Governor Slaton commuted Frank’s sentence to life imprisonment. When his decision was announced the morning of June 21, mobs began to form immediately. Local near-beer saloons were closed, and the sale of firearms was stopped. An effigy of Slaton was hung in Marietta, the hometown of Mary Phagan.

(Area D) 1915. Leo Frank Clemency Application

Significance: Material concerning the trial and appeals of Leo Frank. Included are his application file for executive clemency to commute his sentence from death to life imprisonment, plus evidence from the collection of Governor John M. Slaton. The clemency application file includes supporting documentation and the decision and executive order of Governor John M. Slaton in response to the application.

(Enrichment) 1898. Spanish American War Roster, Ad Hoc Collection, lpc526

Significance: Roster of Georgia 2nd Infantry Regt., Co. H, Spanish-American War.

SS8H8 Analyze Georgia’s participation in important events that occurred from World War I through the Great Depression.

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Boll Weevil
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • Drought of 1924
  • New Deal
  • Rural Electrification Act (REA)
  • Social Security Act (SSA)
  • Talmadge, Eugene
  • World War I
  1. Describe Georgia’s contributions to World War I.
  2. Explain economic factors that resulted in the Great Depression. (e.g., boll weevil and drought).
  3. Describe Eugene Talmadge’s opposition to the New Deal Programs.
  4. Discuss President Roosevelt’s ties to Georgia, including his visits to Warm Springs and his impact on the state.
  5. Examine the effects of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Rural Electrification Administration, and Social Security Administration.

(Terms, New Deal) Lamar Q. Ball Collection

This collection consists of photographs collected by Lamar Q. Ball for his multivolume history of World War II in Georgia. Only one volume of this history, Georgia in World War II: A Study of the Military and Civilian, vol. I, 1939, was published. These photographs date from 1934 to 1945.

(Area A) 1918. Weapons for Liberty. “U.S.A. Bonds, Third Liberty Loan Campaign, Boy Scouts of America, Weapons for Liberty,” Ad Hoc Collection, lpc191

Significance: Poster advertising U.S. war bonds, World War I.

(Area A) Beacon Manufacturing Company, Vanishing Georgia, brw050

Significance: During World War I and II khaki pants for servicemen were produced. Early during the World War II years, the plant was acquired by Charles Dexter Owens and was called Sachem Mills. It began producing blankets.

(Enrichment) 1918. Spanish Influenza Epidemic in Georgia. Excerpts of the 1918 Annual Report of the Georgia State Board of Health dealing with the Spanish Influenza Epidemic in Georgia. Ad Hoc Collection, ah00413

Significance: The report provides contemporary statistics on the number of reported cases of Spanish Influenza in Georgia, and documents how the state government responded to the epidemic.

(Enrichment) 1921. Women’s Suffrage Act of Georgia. “An Act to provide for the exercise of elective franchise by females.” Ad Hoc Collection, ah00782

Significance: Georgia rejected the Nineteenth Amendment, “The rights of citizens in the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex,” on July 24, 1919. In August 1921, the Georgia General Assembly passed an act repealing the section of the Georgia Code stating that “females are not entitled to the privilege of the elective franchise…”, and thus gave women the right to vote, although the Nineteenth Amendment had already been ratified on August 18, 1920. Georgia finally ratified the Nineteenth Amendment on March 27, 1970.

(Area C) 1940. Eugene Talmadge political rally, Vanishing Georgia, geo126-83

(Area C) July 4, 1940. Eugene Talmadge campaigning for governor in Albany, Georgia, Vanishing Georgia Collection, dgh191d

(Area D) 1939, [FDR] “I’ll be back in the fall [to Warm Springs] if we don’t have war” Lamar Q. Ball Collection, lball0120

Significance: FDR visit to Warm Springs.

(Area D) 1930s-1940s. The Medical Center, Warm Springs Foundation, Vanishing Georgia Collection, mer030

Significance: FDR and Warm Springs

(Area D) April 13, 1945. Polio patients watch the hearse carrying FDR’s body from Warm Springs, Vanishing Georgia Collection, mer043

Significance: FDR and Warm Springs

(Area D) April 13, 1945. Polio patients watch the hearse carrying FDR’s body from Warm Springs, Lamar Q. Ball Collection, lball0673

Significance: FDR and Warm Springs.

(Area D photograph) Mid-30s. Dowdell’s Knob at picnic, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dr. Charles Edwin Irwin, Vanishing Georgia Collection, mer026

Significance: FDR and Warm Springs.

(Area E photograph) 1934. Meriwether County, February 3, 1934. Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Meriwether. Vanishing Georgia Collection, ccc071

Significance: The CCC was a voluntary public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. Originally for young men ages 18–25, it was eventually expanded to ages 17–28.

(Area E photograph) 1936. Civilian Conservation Corps, Fort Oglethorpe, Ad Hoc Collection, lpc444

Significance: Civilian Conservation Corps camp at Fort Oglethorpe.

(Area E photograph) 1943. Converted Civilian Conservation Corps building, Lamar Q. Ball Collection, lball0497

Significance: Civilian Conservation Corps buildings reused. A total of 218,020 square feet of lumber from CCC camps was transported and used in the new buildings at Ft. McPherson.

(Area E photograph) Nd. First REA pole set in Seminole County, Vanishing Georgia Collection, sem089-82

Significance: The Rural Electrification Act of 1936, enacted on May 20, 1936, provided federal loans for the installation of systems to serve isolated locations in the United States.

(Area E lithograph) 1938. Timpoochee Barnard, an Uchee warrior, Ad Hoc Collection, lpc023

Significance: During the Depression the federal government began the Works Progress Administration to put people, including artists, back to work.

SS8H9 Describe the role of Georgia in WWII

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • Bell Harbor Plant
  • Lend Lease Act
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Russell, Richard
  • Savannah and Brunswick Shipyards
  • Carl Vinson
  • World War II
  1. Describe key events leading up to American involvement in World War II; include the Lend-Lease Act and the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
  2. Evaluate the purpose and economic impact of the Bell Bomber Plant, military bases, and the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards.
  3. Explain the economic and military contributions of Richard Russell and Carl Vinson.

(Terms, World War II) Lamar Q. Ball Collection

Significance: This collection consists of photographs collected by Lamar Q. Ball for his multivolume history of World War II in Georgia. Only one volume of this history, Georgia in World War II: A Study of the Military and Civilian, vol. I, 1939, was published. These photographs date from 1934 to 1945.

(Enrichment) 1942 Victory Garden, Vanishing Georgia Collection, dek209-85

Significance: Atlanta, circa 1942. Victory Garden.

SS8H10 Evaluate key post-World War II developments in Georgia

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • 1946 Governor’s Race
  • Ivan Allen
  • William B. Hartsfield
  1. Explain how technology transformed agriculture and created a population shift within the state.
  2. Explain how the development of Atlanta under mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr. impacted the state.
  3. Describe the relationship between the end of the white primary and the 1946 governor’s race.

(Area C photograph) 1947. Ellis Arnall during Three Governor dispute, Vanishing Georgia Collection, geo037

Significance: The three-governor dispute of 1946 arose immediately after the death of governor-elect Eugene Talmadge (December 1946). Governor Ellis Arnall, Lieutenant Governor M. E. Thompson, and Talmadge’s don Herman Talmadge all claimed rights to the governor’s seat.

(Area C photograph) 1950. Herman Talmadge at his desk at the capitol, Ad Hoc Collection, grp04-42_01

Significance: Photograph of Herman Talmadge from the Government Record Prints.

(Area C) 1946. Numbered list of voters from Telfair County, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00125

Significance: This document was evidence of voter fraud during the Three Governors controversy during the 1946 election. Poll workers list voters in order in which they vote. This document, beginning with Number 70, lists voters in rough alphabetical order.

(Background) 1949. Citizenship Test. Ad Hoc Collection, ah00120

Significance: Citizenship test portion of 1949 Voter’s Registration Act. Applicants for voter registration were required to read and write a section of the Georgia Constitution as a literacy test. If they could not read or write, they could take an oral examination to demonstrate that they understood “the duties of citizenship under a republican form of government…” Applicants had to correctly answer 10 out of 30 questions.

(Background) 1958. Citizenship Test, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00114

Significance: Applicants for voter registration were required to read and write a section of the Georgia Constitution as a literacy test. If they could not read or write, they could take an oral examination to demonstrate that they understood the “duties of citizenship under a republican form of government…” Applicants had to correctly answer 20 out of 30 questions.

SS8H11 Evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • 1956 State Flag
  • Albany Movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Civil Rights Act (1964)
  • King, Jr., Martin Luther
  • Lewis, John
  • Maddox, Lester
  • March on Washington (1963)
  • Sibley Commission (1961)
  • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
  1. Explain Georgia’s response to Brown v. Board of Education including the 1956 flag and the Sibley Commission.
  2. Describe the role of individuals (Martin Luther King, Jr. and John Lewis), groups (SNCC and SCLC) and events (Albany Movement and March on Washington) in the Civil Rights Movement.
  3. Explain the resistance to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, emphasizing the role of Lester Maddox.

(Area A) 1960. Sibley Commission Report, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00787

Significance: In 1959, U.S. District Judge Frank A. Hooper ruled Atlanta’s segregated public school system unconstitutional and ordered the Atlanta Board of Education to submit a plan for ending segregation of Atlanta schools. The commission, chaired by John A. Sibley, submitted its report on April 28, 1960, two days before its May 1st deadline. The report was adopted by the commission by a 11 to 8 vote.

(Area B Photograph) 1960s Civil Rights march. The Albany Movement demonstration, Vanishing Georgia Collection, dgh-231-86

Significance: The Albany Movement (1961-1961) was a desegregation and voters’ rights coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961.

(Area B Photograph. Background) 1957. Albany State College Fire, Hazard Training School, Exterior, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00654

Significance: In 1957, fires at Albany State College, an African-American teachers’ college, destroyed the Hazard Training School and damaged Caroline Hall. Racially motivated arson was suspected, but the fire at Caroline Hall was ruled an accident by state and local officials while the cause of the fire that destroyed the Hazard Training School was not determined.

(Area B. Photograph. Background) 1957. Albany State College Fire, Hazard Training School, Interior, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00655

Significance: see above.

(Enrichment) January 18, 1961. Governor Ernest Vandiver’s Public Education Address, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00784

Significance. Governor Ernest Vandiver was elected governor in 1958 on a pro-school segregation platform. A federal district court on January 12, 1961 ordered the admission of two African-American students to the University of Georgia. On January 18, 1961 Vandiver delivered an address to a joint session of the General Assembly, broadcast over radio to Georgia citizens, which reflects a confused and rapidly-changing political situation.

SS8H12 Explain the importance of developments in Georgia since the late 20th century

Terms Directly Related to the Standards

  • 1996 Olympic Games
  • Jimmy Carter
  • Maynard Jackson
  • Andrew Young
  1. Explain how the continued development of Atlanta under mayors Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young impacted the state.
  2. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president.
  3. Evaluate the short-term and long-term impacts of hosting the 1996 Olympics on Georgia’s economic and population growth.
  4. Analyze Georgia’s role in the national and global economy of the 21st Century, with regard to tourism, Savannah port expansion, and the film industry.

(Area B and term) 1971. Jimmy Carter, Inauguration as Governor of Georgia, Ad Hoc Collection, spc22-075

Significance: First Lady Rosalynn Carter is on the front row in a green coat and white hat, with daughter Amy Carter on her lap. Jimmy Carter served as governor from 1971 to 1975.

(Area B and term) 1971. Official portrait of Governor Jimmy Carter by Fabian Bachrach, Ad Hoc Collection, spc22-077

(Area B and term) 1974. Jimmy Carter presidential candidacy announcement, Ad Hoc Collection

Significance: Jimmy Carter announced his presidential candidacy and outlined his campaign platform in a speech to the National Press Club on December 12, 1974.

(Area B and term) 1976. Jimmy Carter Notification of Candidacy for U.S. President, Ad Hoc Collection, ah00001

Significance: Notice of Candidacy and Affidavit of Jimmy Carter to run for U.S. President in the General Election of November 2, 1976, filed with the Georgia Elections Division.

(Area C and term) 1996. Photograph. Atlanta Olympics crowds passing the Ben Fortson Archives Building, Ad Hoc Collection, ah1016

Significance: The 1996 Summer Olympics were held in Atlanta, Georgia, from July 19 through August 4, 1996.

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